Have you ever experienced a moment when you feel like your head is so full of thoughts that it feels like it’s going to explode? Do you have a difficult time remembering the timeline of your memories? If you live with neurological conditions such as anxiety, depression or even Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the world feels like that—loud and chaotic—almost all of the time.
Many people think that mental health is all about what’s going on in your brain, but the truth is that it’s also about what’s going on with your body. When you feel good physically it can help you feel good mentally, and vice versa. Many studies demonstrate that spending time in nature helps you feel better. But did you know that spending time along bodies of water, like rivers and streams, can induce a meditative state that makes us smarter, happier and healthier, calmer—and even more creative?
“When I lived in Vail, I used to hike up and journal next to the creeks. It was a traumatic time in my life with the passing of my mom. After that, it was as though my mind became harder to navigate. I was in a dark place. However, I’d sit next to the creek and it’d help soothe me and clear my head,” says CJ, river enthusiast from Glenwood Springs, Colorado. “While all bodies of water are uplifting, the moving water is representative of clearing things out— moving things along. I find peace in that.”
The mere sight or sound of water can induce a flood of neurochemicals that promote wellness, increase blood flow to the brain and heart, and relax us. They can also help take us away from our busy lives for a little while. Plus, they’re beautiful! Whether you’re looking out over a river from a boat or just walking along its banks, there’s something about the way it flows and sounds that helps settle your mind.
CJ was diagnosed with ADHD as an adult. After reflecting upon that news, she found it made sense. Throughout her life, her brain felt like a computer screen with too many tabs open. Rivers and streams have always been her happy place but she has felt even more connected to them in the last year since finding out. They bring her peace in the midst of chaos. “I need the rivers and will always follow them. If they cease to exist here, I will go to where they are,” she mentioned.
That’s exactly what has been done throughout history. Our ancestors lived near rivers because they provided water, food, transportation and other necessities for survival. But they also provided something else— peace.
When we are near a river, we can feel at peace with ourselves, our surroundings and the world around us. “It’s about letting your cares flow away,” CJ continues. “When I’m river rafting or paddleboarding, my brain quiets down and all of my thoughts are pushed aside because I have to be present in the moment. I can’t afford not to be.”
When you think about it, rivers are like a metaphor for the health of our minds: if they’re healthy, we’re healthy; if they’re polluted or running dry, we suffer. That’s why keeping rivers healthy and flowing is so important—they’re not just naturally beautiful; they’re also powerful allies in one’s quest for mental health.
I think people living with mental health concerns have a heightened awareness of the benefits nature provides,” CJ concludes. “We need people, and organizations like Forever Our Rivers, to care deeply for our rivers. In this loud, crazy world, we can’t afford to lose another natural resource that provides the benefits of healing, safety and peace.”
Even if you live in the West and fishing isn’t your passion, it still seems likely you’ve heard of cutthroat trout, swimming throughout the waters of the West. The Colorado River cutthroat trout is one of three subspecies of cutthroat trout and is native only to the Green and Colorado River basins in the Western United States. This small but mighty fish has been an icon of the region for centuries. It is an important source of food for many species of birds, as well as bears and river otters. Fly fishing anglers from all over the states flock to Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Wyoming to experience the colorful spotted beauties.
A beautiful, distinctive fish that’s a gem to see.
The Colorado River cutthroat trout has been called one of the most beautiful fish in North America—and we agree. Their identifiable markings include a bright yellow-gold body, often with greenish-brown on its back and darker spotting on the sides. The belly is pale and the fins are reddish or orange. The trout also has a reddish stripe under its lower jaw, distinguishing it from other trout species.
The average size of these trout is around 8-10 inches in length, but they can grow up to 18 inches. A trout that size is rare because they mostly live at high altitudes where the growing season is short and much of their habitat has been degraded.
The more habitat these fish can reclaim, the better.
The trout are found mostly in the Green and Colorado River basins. Historically, they inhabited the Colorado River and its tributaries from the headwaters in Colorado and Wyoming down to the Grand Canyon in Arizona. However, the population has declined significantly over the years due to human activity and introduced non-native species.
Today, the remaining populations of the Colorado River cutthroat trout are found in small, isolated streams and lakes in the higher elevations of headwaters. These fish require cold, clear water with high oxygen levels and gravelly or rocky stream bottoms for spawning.
They are another native species, threatened and declining.
The 1800s did not fare well for the Colorado River cutthroat trout. They were overfished and brought to the point of near extinction. Though their population has declined by over 90%, restocking of cutthroat and removal of nonnative species has helped. The trout are now listed as threatened versus endangered. The primary risks include habitat destruction, overfishing, water diversions and withdrawals, and the introduction of more non-native fish species.
Water diversions disrupt the natural flow of rivers and streams, affecting the trout’s ability to spawn and access their habitat. When non-native fish such as brown and rainbow trout were introduced, it opened up a whole new danger, as they prey upon the cutthroat. Climate change, wildfires and droughts also limit and degrade their habitat.
You can help this iconic fish live on.
Efforts to conserve the trout have been ongoing for decades, including the restoration of diverse yet well-connected streams with boulders and large, downed trees that provide cover from predators. Also critical are fish passage projects, the reintroduction of native trout populations, and the removal of brown and rainbow trout from where they don’t naturally live.
Organizations, including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and state fish and wildlife agencies, are working together to protect and restore the Colorado River cutthroat trout and its habitat. These organizations also educate the public about the importance of conservation and responsible angling practices. While the cutthroat faces numerous threats, ongoing conservation efforts offer hope for its long-term survival.
Anglers can do their part by practicing responsible fishing practices, such as catch-and-release and avoiding fishing during spawning periods. Others can volunteer or give to organizations, like Forever Our Rivers, which works hard to restore aquatic and riparian habitat within and along rivers, crucial for the trout’s survival. The more habitat the better, and by working together, we can ensure that future generations will have the opportunity to experience the beauty and majesty of this remarkable, reputable fish.
With a $158,000 grant awarded by Forever Our Rivers Foundation, conservation crews have a head start on their annual quest to improve the health of the Colorado River basin.
Crew members will monitor, treat and prevent non-native species like tamarisk—one of the most invasive plants in the Colorado River basin—and nurture native species in Colorado, Utah and Arizona.
When harmful invasives are removed and replaced with native plants, the resulting increased biodiversity allows ecosystems to thrive and become more resilient to a changing climate.
“Combating invasive species is essential, and not only for protecting our unsurpassed hiking, fishing and boating experiences,” said Ann Johnston, executive director of Forever Our Rivers. “Rivers and streams are far more important than the water running through them.”
Conservation Legacy of Durango, Colorado, will lead the crews in partnership with watershed groups in the Dolores, Escalante, Verde and Gila Rivers of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona. Their Southwest Conservation Crews will work directly with local nonprofits in the individual watersheds.
“The funding not only progresses the vital restoration efforts of the watershed partnerships, it educates youth by engaging them directly with the work and helps build the next generation of land stewards,” said Nate Peters, Conservation Legacy’s watershed programs manager.
Healthy rivers provide clean water, store carbon, and serve as a buttress against the impacts of climate change. Introduced in the 1950s, Russian olive and tamarisk quickly choked waterways with dense growth that outcompeted native vegetation such as cottonwoods and willows, leading to severe channel narrowing. Preliminary research shows a significant decrease in channel width following the Russian Olive and tamarisk invasions, and a beneficial increase in width after treatment. In other words, treatment not only allows for the recovery of native vegetation but also restores more natural river geomorphology and meander. It also lowers fire danger and improves river access.
Conservation Legacy and the Southwest Conservation Crews will continue this important work throughout the summer and fall of 2023.
Whether showing off their dance moves in wet meadows or filling the sky with their massive wingspans, sandhill cranes are magnificent birds that can be found throughout most of North America and even parts of Siberia. These birds are known for their distinctive calls, which can often be heard from great distances—some say up to 2.5 miles away! How do you know if you’ve seen one? Well, the sandhill cranes sport a recognizable red crown which is a major contrast from the rest of their tall, grayish body.
Water is key to the sandhill crane habitats.
Chances are if you recreate along our waterways you’ve seen a crane. If not, maybe you’ve at least heard their loud, rolling, trumpeting sound. They prefer river basins, wetlands, marshes and other areas with shallow water where they can easily find food. They are also known to inhabit agricultural fields, meadows and grasslands. During the breeding season, they typically choose areas with tall vegetation that gives good cover and protection to their nests. These habitats provide the cranes with water and a place to rest but also the right diet. While plants make up the majority of their food, they will occasionally eat small mammals or amphibians. Sandhill cranes have long beaks that allow them to probe wetlands for seeds, berries and insects.
Sandhill cranes are family-centered birds that love to socialize!
Sandhill cranes are social birds typically living in pairs or small family groups. The males are known for their elaborate courtship displays, which involve dancing, bowling, calling and even tossing small objects into the air. Who says chivalry is dead? They also typically mate for life and share nesting roles together.
During migration, their flocks are composed of hundreds of cranes that include family groups and unmated birds. Constant communication is key for these birds to successfully complete their long flights. Sometimes you may find various flocks congregating together during migration and at winter stopovers, bringing the number up to the thousands.
Sandhill cranes may fly up to 400 miles in one day.
The migration pattern of the sandhill cranes is honestly what we find the most interesting. Many populations spend the summer in the northern United States and Canada before flying south for the winter. In the western US, the largest concentration of sandhill cranes can be found in the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado, where around 20,000 cranes gather each fall to rest and feed before continuing their journey south. Other important stopover areas include the Platte River in Nebraska and the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico. Sandhill cranes are very strong flyers and may fly up to 400 miles in one day during the migration season. It’s hard to fathom given it can take us anywhere from five and half to nine hours to drive that length with a car.
Let’s keep them moving and dancing.
Despite their widespread distribution, sandhill cranes are not immune to the effects of human recreation, development and climate change. The landscapes along the cranes’ migration paths are rapidly changing. When they experience habitat disturbance or loss, their resting and breeding grounds become compromised. If this continues, the population of sandhill cranes will quickly plummet. Fortunately, there are many organizations—like Forever Our Rivers—working hard to protect and restore important riparian habitats suitable for these birds.
Sandhill cranes are fascinating birds with habitat, behaviors and migration patterns that make them a valuable part of our natural heritage. Did you know that a ten-million-year-old sandhill crane fossil was found in Nebraska? So far, this makes them the oldest known surviving bird species. Conservation efforts are essential to ensure that future generations can continue to enjoy the beauty and grace of these historical, elegant birds. Check out this recent video of the sandhill crane migration in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. If you haven’t gotten a chance to see these amazing birds, we hope you get the lucky opportunity to do so soon.
Those of you like Amy, obsessed with watching ABC’s new sitcom Not Dead Yet, may have noticed an episode where Nell’s roommate briefly touched on the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher. Didn’t catch it? Maybe only Amy noticed because it just so happened to be top of mind with Forever Our Rivers.
Why are the Southwestern Willow Flycatchers catching people’s attention—even of the Hollywood writers/producers? They’ve been endangered since 1995, have a huge impact on controlling insect populations, and well, are super cute songbirds.
A small but mighty songbird that relies on riparian habitats.
The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is a migratory bird that thrives in lush areas along rivers in the southwestern United States and part of Mexico. Their native habitat among willows, box elders and cottonwoods provide important ecosystem services: these trees and shrubs filter sediment from water, improve soil and provide wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, these flycatchers have adapted to nest in thickets of non-native, invasive species such as saltcedar (also known as tamarisk) and Russian Olive. While we praise the birds for their adaptability, saltcedar and Russian olive are wreaking havoc on water quality and quantity in the southwest.
So, you may be wondering, how do we get rid of those invasive species without getting rid of the flycatchers? Don’t worry, we’ll cover that soon.
Flycatchers also eat insects such as mosquitoes, flies, beetles and moths. This helps regulate insect populations, which can have a significant impact on the environment. Occasionally they may eat berries such as blackberries and raspberries, but insects make up over 95% of their diet.
It’s estimated that only 2,500 to 3,000 flycatchers remain.
The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher population had been declining for decades. Climate change and human development such as water diversion, groundwater pumping and building along waterways have not done these birds any favors. Large portions of the flycatcher’s habitat have disappeared throughout much of its historic range. This led to the flycatcher being listed as a federally endangered species in 1995, where it still remains today.
What do we do about this?
Well, the flycatcher is in luck.
Conservation efforts are underway focused on habitat restoration and protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher. One of Forever Our Rivers’ partners, the Gila Watershed Partnership (GWP), is working hard on this huge balancing act.
“Even though trees such as desert willow are the native habitat of these birds, they have adapted to the saltcedar so well that much of the tamarisk thicket along the river has become untouchable due to Endangered Species Act restrictions. These thickets are dense enough to inhibit stream flow”, said Dr. Sarah Sayles, executive director of the Gila Watershed Partnership. Yet efforts to control non-native species such as saltcedar can be detrimental to flycatchers if the plants are removed without suitable native riparian habitat nearby to replace them with.In order to not to lose any habitats for the flycatchers, GWP follows the defoliation of salt cedar—usually done by the tamarisk beetle—by promoting and restoring native plants in their appropriate place along the Gila River.
I bet this question is on the tip of your tongue: Is the population still declining despite all the hard work? According to the American Bird Conservancy, the bird’s population is very slowly increasing. GWP hasn’t yet seen a difference in population but is hopeful. “We have seen the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher out on our work sites in some of the newly planted natives. We’ll continue to restore more and more native habitat for the endangered species of the Gila River. We’re in this for the long-haul”, Dr. Sarah explains.
This is just one example of the restoration work our river partners are doing along tributaries to the Colorado River. Thank you to our amazing nonprofit partners who are out there every day making a difference for the rivers and those that depend on them like the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher!
Beavers are in the news these days—and for good reason. According to recent research, their dam-building skills could be key to helping our rivers and watersheds become more climate resilient. It may be strange to think about one of the world’s largest rodents as a working-class superhero. But, the fact is, this keystone species is a hardworking ecosystem engineer.
Before the 1600s, the United States had approximately 221 million acres of wetlands and beavers roamed in almost every region that had streams and creeks. After the Europeans settled in North America, rivers were channelized by canals and dams, drying wetlands for agriculture, utilities and homes. At the same time, beavers were trapped for their valuable pelts. The landscape began to dry dramatically and beavers were almost driven to extinction. In the 1980s the United States was down to 103 million acres of wetlands, which has only continued to decline.
Wetlands are critically important because they improve water quality and supply by filtering contaminants, enhancing soil moisture and recharging groundwater. Beavers enhance wetlands by building dams, which slow water flow across floodplains, reducing the likelihood of flooding and helping landscapes survive forest fires. Who knew that was another one of their superhero abilities?
Fire can not spread easily on land filled with water, mud or well-hydrated vegetation. Past studies have shown that after large wildfires most of the large beaver wetlands were still green and healthy. Areas without beavers averaged three times more damage than those with beavers present. It’s pretty amazing and beneficial for other wildlife that can’t outrun the flames.
Fortunately, humans can help beavers make a comeback by creating beaver dam analogs on relic wetlands. This is especially important in the West as the climate warms and dries. These simple dam analogs have proven effective in slowing flows and enticing beavers back to historic wetlands. Given enough time, the beavers create lush riparian habitat ideal for fish, deer, elk, moose, swans and other birds.
In 2022, Forever Our Rivers helped fund a transformative project at Trail Creek, the headwaters of the Gunnison River—a tributary to the Colorado River. Crested Butte’s High Country Conservation Alliance partnered with the USFS and the National Forest Foundation to build more than 150 beaver dams at Trail Creek using willows, conifer and mud. The dams began to rewet 30 acres of historic wetlands. The bonus of this hard work was that two beavers found their way back to the area, finding it suitable for residence. The best ending to the story will be watching these beavers as they work, maintaining the wetlands for years to come.
While the beaver’s work can be a nuisance to some humans, the benefits of beavers are substantial. The love for beavers is continuing to grow nationwide as more people become aware of the need for their partnership.
Plus, they are cute, right? Even with their orange teeth.
Endangered but oh so loved
The Colorado River provides water to more than forty million people in two countries, seven states, and twenty-nine Native American tribes. Even though it’s endangered, it is still one of the nation’s most beloved and relied-upon rivers.
Want to know more?
Check out these 17 interesting facts by Inspirich and then tell us what you found most fascinating—we’d love to know!